100 Capitalization (English)

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Capitalization is a standard grammatical practice throughout al of the english language uses. A capital letter of a word can symbolize various grammatical implications. Capitalization rules are generally the same throughout all the various style guides in the English language.

Capitalizing words

The first word of every sentence must begin with a capital letter. When encountering an exception to this rule, such as beginning a sentence with the word 'iPhone,' consider recasting the sentence so that it begins with a different word that can be capitalized--such as 'The iPhone'--to prevent any exceptions from occurring. See Quotes Exception.
As long as the first letter of a sentence is capitalized, there are no other steadfast rules for what can and cannot be capitalized in that sentence. However, aside from starting a sentence, capitalization is used to set off or draw attention to a specific word or phrase, so as a general rule, capitalization should be limited to only what is essentially needed to be capitalized, such as proper nouns.

Proper Nouns

The first letter of each word in a person's name is capitalized without exception. Except for this exception: The first letter of each word in a place or proper noun is capitalized unless it is a preposition, such as 'of,' regardless of chosen languages. In some exceptions, the prepositions within proper names are capitalized as well.
A proper noun is any person, place, or object that has a unique name to identify it, such as the city of New York or New York City.


An article is a word that introduces a noun or pronoun, such as: a, an, and the.
When introducing a proper noun, the article can be capitalized if it is part of the proper noun, such as the case of the title of a book; otherwise, it is only capitalized if at the start of the sentence.


Headline capitalization is a term that was coined for the treatment of headlines of newspaper articles where the first letter of each word was capitalized to set the line off as the headline and not the first sentence of the article itself.
When providing a byline after a headline, the word by is not capitalized.

Camel Case

Camel case capitalization became popular among computer programmers to save time from having to place underscores between words in file names. Rather than using an underscore to represent spaces between words where spaces were not permitted, specifically in file names, and still ensure file names were easy to read, programmers would capitalize the first letter of each word in the file name and remove the underscores so there were no representations of spaces in the names.
For example, my_file_name.doc would be written as follows in camel case: MyFileName.doc.
In that example, MyFileName is using camel case capitalization.